Map of East Dorset, England, about 40 mile square
MA, USA MapMap of part of MA USA to same scale

Thomas Dewey The Settler, his roots in England

1. Overview
1.1 Thomas Dewey, 'The Settler': Was part of the "Great Migration" {GtMgrtn} from England to America led by Governor John Winthrop during the 1630s.  According to {EarlyAncstr} "Thomas Dewey was the first Dewey to arrive in New England. All Dewey's in the colonial lines descend from him. There is much speculation about when he arrived and where he came from"

1.2 The Intent: I have spent several years researching in an attempt to identify the person in England who emigrated to America and came to be known as 'Thomas Dewey, The Settler'. With the paucity of official records from the 1600s, and the length of time that has passed it is almost impossible to prove anything absolutely. However, to prove 'beyond reasonable doubt' that a specific person in England went on to become Thomas Dewey The Settler (TDTS), several separate and independent items of evidence would need to be presented.

1.3 Evidence Criteria: The items of evidence should cover most, ideally all, of the following:-
  a) Place & Date of Birth: Most migrants came from Dorset, Devon or Somerset; records in America suggest birth year from 1600 to 1610
  b) His Father: There are claims that Thomas Dewey The Settler's father was also a Thomas Dewey
  c) His Mother: Links to other immigrant families
  d) John Russell's will: This shows Thomas Dewey The Settler as 1 of 4 witnesses. Mutual witnesses to such a document are usually related or close associates
  e) Religion: The candidate in England (and his associates) would almost certainly have been Protestant
  f) Origin: There are claims that he "came from" Sandwich, evidence supporting any possible link
  g) Neighbours: Thomas Dewey the Settler was an early settler of Windsor, Connecticut; Windsor settler neighbours might well have come from the same communities in England
  h) Ship Mary and John: There are claims that Thomas came on this ship; there may be some connection with the ship
  i) Which ship: Thomas Dewey The Settler cannot be found on any passenger list, any reason for this
  j) Newfoundland Fishing Industry, evidence for any involvement
  k) Statistical Confidence Level: Statistical analysis of evidence put forward.

2. The Evidence
The evidence gathered is presented in the following subsections. Each of the above 11 criteria, a to k are covered. Whenever an item of evidence was found, 'counter-evidence' was also looked for. For example, the name Mary Moore is not uncommon, so where more than one occurrence was found, all of the possible relevant ones were investigated to try to ensure that the one referred to is most likely to be the right one.

2.1 Place and Date of birth As a starting point a Thomas Dewey born 1590 to 1620 in the West of England was searched for. After investigating a number of possibilities at the Dorset Record Office in Dorchester, England, the following baptism record {Thomas Dewye 1606 baptism} for the town of Hinton Martell was found:-
1606 Baptized. Thomas Dewye son of Tho: Dewye 20 December”.

Hinton Martell is a small village in Dorset about 30 miles from Dorchester. The date of 1606 on the above record is compatible with Thomas Dewey The Settler's arrival in America as a young man of "full age", i.e. over 21, in order to be a witness to a will and to be granted land rights. From {WikiFClark} this date also fits with the date of his marriage to Frances Clark (widow) in 1638; with the birth of his 6 children between 1640 and 1647 (John was Thomas's first born, but died in 1640); and with his death (at the relatively early) age of 42 in Windsor, Connecticut on 27 April 1648. The choice of the name John for his first born would seem to have come from his father Thomas Dewye Snr; he had a son John born 1591, died probably 1599, another John born and died 1600 and a third John born 1609, who became my ancestor. Thomas's wife Frances remarried to George Phelps (1606 to 1687) by whom she had three further children and outlived Thomas by 42 years, dying in 1690.

2.2 His Father Some websites e.g. {geniFPhelps} refer to Thomas Dewey The Settler as "Thomas Dewey Jr", implying that his father was also called Thomas. This seems to stem from an entry on the LDS database (AFN: 2PGR-SVM), but the source of any definitive evidence is not given. However, The Settler called his first son Thomas (b1640), so it could be a family tradition.
The above record for Thomas Dewye's baptism identifies the father as "Tho: Dewye"; Tho: is almost certainly an abbreviation of Thomas, i.e. he would be Thomas Dewey senior. From Ancestry, the baptism record was found {Thomas Dewye 1577/8 baptism} at the town of Gillingham in Dorset, which is about 20 miles NW of Hinton Martell. Another Dorset Record Office item {TDSnr_Ma1601}} shows:- Thomas Dewye, married, 12 Oct 1601, Hinton Martell to Mary Moore.
This marriage was five years prior to the baptism of Thomas Dewye junior.
There are more records in Hinton Martell pertaining to Tho./Thomas Dewye/Dewey, in particular from the folder {DPR1538} of scanned images, in the series 36990xxxx.jpg, where xxxx is the 'sub-code', as used below:-

xxxx: event relating to sub-code xxxx
3286: Baptism on 5.10.1591 of John, father Tho. Dewye presumably this John died before 1600, no record found
3282: Baptism on 4.3.1596 of Elizabeth, father Tho. Dewye
3278: Burial on 21.2.1599 of Joan, father Thomas Dewye, possibly an error, should be John not Joan?
3278: Baptism on 21.2.1600 of John, father Tho: Dewye, sadly followed a week later by the burial of Agnes and John, wife and son of Tho: Dewye. Agnes was probably Thomas Dewey senior's wife prior to Mary Moore.
3277: Marriage 12.10.1601 of Thomas Dewye & Mary Moore
3277: Buryed 22.01.1602 Edeth Moore
3276: Baptism on 22.5.1602 of Ales, daughter of Tho: Dewye
3273: Baptism on 5.5.1605 of Mawde, daughter of Tho: Dewye
3272: Baptism on 20.12.1606 of Thomas Dewye, son of Tho: Dewye
3269: Baptism on 15.4.1609 of John Dewy son of Tho: Dewy
3269: Rich: Highmore, Wm. Dewye, Robert Stayner - Wardens
3268: Buryed Wm. Dewye 2.9.1610, Wid. Dewye 8.3.1610
3267: Buryed Ellis Moore alias Webb, 16.3.1611
3267: 1611 - Richard Highmore Rector, John Small & Tho: Dewye wardens; Tho: senior took the place of Wm. Dewye (probably his brother) following his death in 1609.
3242: Buryed Thomas Dewey 1.7.1636. This record shows the current spelling of 'Thomas' and 'Dewey'.

This last burial is corroborated as being that of Thomas Dewey senior by research carried out by Richard Samways (commissioned by Michael Dewey and myself) on the Shaftesbury Archives. This research shows Thomas Dewye as renting a cottage with his wife Mary and son John in 1624 and also Thomas Dewey dying in 1636, with his widow Marie becoming the tenant. The above corroborating records make it almost certain that Thomas Dewey/Dewye junior's mother is Mary Moore.

It is relevant that there is no mention of Thomas Dewey jnr in the Shaftesbury Archives, only his younger brother John (b1609) in the tenancy agreement and also as a juror. Also no further records have been found relating to Thomas Dewey jnr in the Dorset Parish records. Obviously, these would be the expected results if Thomas Dewey jnr had emigrated.

2.3 His Mother
The Parish Record for Dorchester Holy Trinity {DPRDoHT} shows the baptism {Mary Moore 1586 baptism}  of a Mary Moore on 30 Oct 1586, the father was Thon (presumably Thomas) Moore.  This is the most likely candidate to be the Mary Moore who married Thomas Dewey senior, so Thomas Moore would be Thomas Dewye junior's grandfather.    For Stratton there is the burial of a Mary Moore on 24 Nov 1637.{Mary Moore 1637 burial}  This was one year after the burial of Thomas Dewey senior at Hinton Martell (parish record 3234, listed above, 1 Jul 1636 "Buryed: Thomas Dewey"). It would not be unreasonable that Mary should return to her home village after the death of her husband Thomas Dewey senior, especially as there seems to have been some dispute over the cottage tenancy agreement. This is based on the 'Presentment, 6 Oct 1636' in the Shaftesbury Archives referring to "the undertenant which dwelleth in the house" and "wee desire that shee may be ridden upon payne of 40s". There is no further mention of Mary Dewey, in particular no burial in the Hinton Martell records. 

There is more evidence linking the Moore family to Hinton Martell:-
  a) The parish records for Winterbourne Steepleton (only 4 miles SW of Stratton) show the baptism of an Edith Moore on 17 Jan 1567, the father was Tho Moore {Edith Moore 1567 baptism}. This links to a record for Hinton Martell {Edith Moore burial} showing "Edeth Moore buryd 22.1.1601".  The marriage of Mary was within a few months of this burial. Edeth/Edith is probably either Mary's elder sister or, perhaps more likely, her mother, as there is also a record of a marriage of Thomas Moore and Edith Cowstans in 1569 at Westbury upon Severn.
  b) The parish records for the village of Sturminster Marshall (just 7 miles SW of Hinton Martell) show the baptism of John Moore on 4 Oct 1607 { John Moore 1607 baptism}, the father was Thomas Moore.  John is highly likely to be Mary's younger brother born just 7 miles from where Mary lived, and 1 year after Thomas Dewey was born.

2.4 John Russell's will
The first official record of Thomas Dewey, The Settler in America seems to be {JRWill} as a witness (Tho. Deway) to the will of John Russell (died 26 Aug 1633). This was also witnessed by Thomas Moore, John Moore and John Warham. One of the two main beneficiaries of this will was John's brother Henry Russell. The other was Thomas Hyatt, also described as a "brother". However, records on {Ancsy} show that John had another brother, Robert, who was a Church Warden in Hinton Martel in 1625; he had a Daughter Elizabeth, who married a Thomas Hyatt. So Thomas, the husband of John's niece, is more akin to a 'brother-in-law'. More details can be found under the tab 'Settler's FT'.  

The renowned family historian Charles Edwards Banks advised {CEB_Dctny} that
"mutual witnesses in deeds ... it is usual for friends and relatives to assume these obligations for each other". This "mutual witnesses" evidence corroborates the evidence from the Hinton Martell records that Thomas Dewey's grandfather was Thomas Moore, and his uncle was John Moore. In addition, the evidence that they were closely related is supported by the fact that none of Thomas' children nor grandchildren married a Moore.

There are also links in England between the Dewey and the Russell families.
The parish records for Hinton Martell {DPR1538 sub-code 3315} show:-
6 Oct 1567 “Robert the sonne of Rychard Russell was christened” and in {DPR1538 sub-code 3254} for 1625 "Sam: Highmore, Rector; Tho: Dewey & Robert Russell, wardens".  This shows that Thomas Dewey senior and Robert Russell were church wardens at the same time and Robert's father was probably Rychard. However Richard and Robert were popular names in the Russell family; in Lychett Minster there is a Richard son of Richard baptised in 1563 and also in 1586, in Hinton Martell there is a Robert son of Robert baptised in 1598, so Richard could be the grandfather or uncle of Robert.

The parish records for Lytchett Minister (about 10 miles S of Hinton Martell) show {DPR_LM, page 6} the baptism of a John Russell on 3 Nov 1570, about the right birth date for someone who died in 1633.  The father of this John Russell was Richard Russell. Also for Lytchett Minster is shown {DPR_LM, page 5} the baptism of a Henry Russell on 4 Sep 1573, father Richard Russell.  This is likely to be the brother that John Russell mentioned in his will. Their father is probably the same Richard Russell who was in Hinton Martell in 1567.  This would make John and Robert brothers, and likely John Russell and Thomas Dewey junior were acquainted.

2.5 Religion
I have chosen to use the generic term Protestant on this web page rather than the more specific Puritan, even though the Great Migration is generally associated with Puritans {WikiPrjt}. Thomas Dewey The Settler was almost certainly a Protestant, as were his associates in America. The fourth witness to John Russell's will was Rev. John Warham, a Protestant religious leader {WikiRevJW}. From {Ancsy} there is a record {TDSnr_Ma1591} of the marriage of Thomas Dewey (Snr) to an Agneta (Agnes) Warham, in 1591 at Tarrant Monkton, which is only about 3 miles from Hinton Martell. Agnes is most likely to be John Warham's sister, or a close relative, indicating a close connection between the Dewey and Warham families. There is evidence that the Dewey family in Hinton Martell and their associates in England were also Protestant. A very useful source of information regarding Protestants in Dorset is the book {ProtRtn}, in particular:-
 Page 123 for "Hinton Martin" (presumably Hinton Martell) 'Robert Russell', 'John Dewey' and 'Robt. Moores'
 Page 60 for Hinton St Mary (about 20 miles NW of Hinton Martell) on 27 Feb 1641, lists several 'Moore', including 'Thomas Moore, jun.' Also on page 29 for Hinton St Mary the names 'George Phellps', 'John Ford' and 'Robte. Moore'.
 Page 2 for "ANDERSTON" (probably Anderson, about 10 miles SW of Hinton Martell) lists Samuel Highmore as Rect. This is probably the same Sam Highmore that was rector at Hinton Martell in 1625 when Thomas Dewey senior and Robert Russell were wardens.
 Page 130 for Wimborne Minster (less than 4 miles S of Hinton Martell) lists Christopher and Robert Wareham.
Page 125 through to 128 lists for Wimbourne Minster:-
   Henry, Steven, John, Robert and William*2 Dewey
   John, William and Thomas Moores
   John*2, William*3, Richard*2 and Simon Russell
   Anthony, Christopher and Robert Wareham

Clearly various members of the Dewey, Moore, Russell and Warham families living within 10 miles of Hinton Martell were all part of a close community of Protestants. They would have worshipped and worked together, and inevitably inter-married. Those members of these close communities that emigrated are likely to have remained close when they arrived in America. It is therefore to be expected that John Russell and the witnesses to his will were all close. This reinforces the hypothesis that Thomas Dewey The Settler came from Hinton Martell and he was related to the Moore family.

2.6 Origin
Thomas Dewey, The Settler is often referred to as having emigrated from (or born in) Sandwich in the county of Kent. For example, {LGD} page 216 "... in early manhood seems to have become a dissenter and emigrated to America from Sandwich, Kent, England, as one of the early settlers, under Governor Winthrop and Rev. John Warham". Other historians dispute this; RC Anderson states in {RCA_GtMgrtn}:- "The statement has been made [e.g., NYGBR 6:63] that Thomas Dewey was from Sandwich, Kent, but this has no documentary foundation. Dewey was more likely from the West Country, as were so many of the other early settlers of Dorchester."

I have not found any formal evidence for any connection to Sandwich in Kent. However, it is possible that Thomas Dewey could have had connections with Sandwich in Dorset. There is a lot of evidence clearly showing that the town in Dorset now known as Swanage was known as Sandwich in the 1600s. However when {LGD} was written in the 1890s, maps of the time would only show Sandwich in Kent. This evidence can be viewed under the 'Sandwich?' menu tab. Thomas Dewey's possible connection to Sandwich/Swanage probably relates to the Newfoundland fishing industry. It is likely that Thomas Moore and Thomas Dewey were involved with the fishing industry. Swanage is a small port close to Poole harbour (the largest of Dorset's ports) and could have been Thomas Dewey's winter base. A search on Ancestry reveals there are records of Moores (but no Deweys) in Swanage in the 1600s.

2.7 Neighbours
A persecuted Protestant minority would be a tight knit community. The immigrants' families would probably have known one another quite well and individual members would have stuck together both before departure and on arrival in America.
The famed historian Charles Edwards Banks advises {CEB_Dctny} "former neighbours would often secure adjoining house lots and continue their old associations in the new country." Thomas Dewey The Settler is recorded as being one of the first settlers of Windsor, Connecticut. The 'Plan of Ancient Windsor, 1640-1654' {WCtMap1654} shows some interesting likely "old associations", to use CE Banks terminology:-
  a) Thos. Dewey has a plot about 1 mile N from Thos Moore and John Moore
  b) Thos Moore's plot is only 4 plots N of Mr Roger Ludlow. The immediate neighbours to Thos and John Moore are John Witchfield and John Branker; according to StilesV1 page 446, John Branker was "a gentleman of good education, estate and reputation, and the first schoolmaster of Windsor", and on page 76, both he and Mr John Witchfield were "ruling elders" of Windsor church. This suggests Thos. Moore status was more than just a settler farmer, perhaps more that of a ship owner? There is also a baptist record on {Ancsy} for a John Branker at Hinton St Mary on 19 Dec 1600, father Thomas.
  c) Thos. Dewey is 2 plots from Eltwood Pomeroy (Michael Dewey married 1610 in Beer Hackett, Dorset to Margarett Pomery)
  d) Mary Collins has a plot about 1 mile W of Thomas Dewey; A John Collens married an Elizabeth Russell in Hinton Martell in 1629
  e) Within about one mile radius Of Thos. Dewey's plot there are plots with the surnames of Collins, Clarke*2, Williams, Moore*2, Marshall, Allen, Taylor, Cook*2, Hill and Ford. All ten of these surnames, as well as Dewey, appear on the Protestant register for Wimbourne Minster {ProtRtn}.
  f) Thos. Dewey's nearest neighbours (Cook, Pomeroy, Denslow, Ford, Terry and Hull) were all 'Early Settlers', according to {Kuhn1943} meaning they either came on the Mary & John, or perhaps, were already in America.
  g) From the family tree {ACooke}, Aaron Cook and Thomas Ford were half brothers. Aaron Cook on the Mary&John passenger list {Kuhn1943} is listed as age 17 so he is probably the son (Bap. Bridport 1613) of Capt. Aaron Cook, implying that Capt. Aaron Cook was already in America before 1630 and his son joined him. As so many of his nearest neighbours were Early Settlers, it would seem to be likely that Thomas Dewey The Settler was in America before 1630. Also John Russell, who Thomas Dewey knew, was a merchant and left an estate, implying that John Russell was probably in America before 1630.
  h) Lychett Minster (where John and Henry Russell were born) is situated just beside Poole Harbour, so it is quite likely that the Russell family were also involved in the fishing trade. The parish records show also the baptism of a Richard Phelpes on 25 Sep 1570, the father was Thomas Phelpes.
  i) Hinton Martell (where Thomas Dewey junior was born and senior married) parish records show a number of events relating to the name Clark(e)

Obviously it is highly likely that not all of these name matches represent an "old association", but it is also extremely unlikely that all of them are just a coincidence. This evidence shows that the early Protestant community at Windsor CT had connections with Protestant families living in and around Wimborne Minster. Hinton Martell is less than 4 miles due north of Wimborne Minster which is the main town of the 'Badbury Hundred' {BleauMap4}.

2.8 Ship Mary and John
In 1630 the Mary and John carried a number of the early settlers so in theory Thomas Dewey might have been on the 'Mary and John'. However, he does not appear on any passenger list. Deacon John Moore is believed to have been a passenger in 1630, according to {Kuhn1943}.  The name 'Mary and John' is somewhat unusual, as in those times, the male name would normally have been given precedence.  This perhaps suggests that Mary was in some way more 'senior' to John.  I had considered that it is possibly not a coincidence that the owner of the Mary and John in 1630, Roger Ludlow had a plot in Windsor just 4 plots from Thomas Moore who had a daughter Mary with a younger (by about 20 years) brother John who was baptised October 1607, although could have been born some time earlier if his father was at sea a lot. According to {Wiki} a ship named the 'Mary and John' was carrying settlers in 1607. It and another ship (the 'Gift of God') took about 120 colonists to America in 1607 to form what was known as the Popham Colony, and then brought them back to England in 1608 as the colony failed to prosper. The key to resolving the uncertainty as to the naming of the ship may lie with the information as to who owned the Mary and John prior to 1630. Some further research is needed.

2.9 Which ship
The name of the ship that Thomas Dewey came to New England on is unknown. The Settler might have travelled on the Mary and John, or the Lyon according to LGD, but there is a lack of evidence to support these suggestions. The ship that Thomas Moore travelled on is also unknown but {Kuhn1943} suggests that John Moore most likely travelled on the Mary and John. Evidence from the 1574 census of ships of Poole {DecksV22N2}, page 10 lists "Thomas Mores (Moores) " as a ship owner. The name of the ship is given as Caruell. Also {JSydnmPoole} page 357 refers to a survey of 1591 which lists, among others:- 18. The Caruell, 025 tonnes, 2 falcons (Pieces of ordinances), owner Thomas Mores.

A caravel (or caruel) is a 50-100 ton Portugese sailing ship. From {PirateKing} :- "The caravel was a vessel of paramount importance in the 15th and 16th centuries, when it was used to traverse the immense barrier to the New World". Wikipedia has a description of "Being smaller and having a shallow keel, the caravel could sail upriver in shallow coastal waters. With the lateen sails attached, it was highly manoeuvrable and could sail much nearer the wind, while with the square Atlantic-type sails attached, it was very fast". This would make this ship an ideal vessel for use on the Newfoundland fisheries, as well as establishing Windsor as a settlement. From {WCtMap1654} the early settlement was on the western side of the "The Great River", where the river is 1000 to 2000 feet wide so it would have been difficult to bring possessions and supplies in by wagon; by ship would have been a lot easier. The map also shows "Trading House 1633" on the western side; this could have been supported by ships such as caravels prior to the settlers arriving and then supported the settlement afterwards.

This evidence suggests that Thomas Moore (and Thomas Dewey) were most likely involved with the Newfoundland fishing industry (see section 2.10) and to have been to America prior to 1630. This would explain why neither of them appear on any passenger list.

The drawings of the larger Caravels with their Lateen rigged sail at the stern:- {WikiCaravel} bear a striking resemblance to the replica of the Mary and John as shown on the Windsor Historical Society web-site under the tab 'First English Settlers' {MnJReplica}. The Mary & John replica is very similar to this other replica {WikiGoldenHinde} of the famous ship of Francis Drake, the Golden Hind, used on his circumnavigation of the globe between 1577 and 1580. According to {FDrakeReport} the Golden Hind was also a caravel. From Wiki, the ship was originally known as the Pelican, a bird that can travel large distance to catch fish, stores them in a pouch and brings them home! Great name for a fishing vessel, presumably its original intended role, but not so much for a fighting ship. It was renamed by Drake mid-voyage in 1578, in honour of his patron, Sir Christopher Hatton, whose crest was a golden 'hind'.

Possibly the ship owned by Thomas Moore in 1591 was the Mary and John and he sold it to his "old associate" Roger Ludlow. Subsequently they ended up living just 4 plots away from one another in Windsor, CT. Other Poole ship owners have the same surname as people in {ProtRtn} for Wimborne Minster, which is only 5 miles N of Poole. This shows more possible links connecting Wimborne Minster Protestants with the fishing industry. The surnames are Lambert (John and Richard), Bennett and Coxe. The surname Lambert/Lambart is of particular interest as Thomas Lambert is listed in {LGD} page 218, as an Early Settler of Dorchester MA and also in {DPR1538} for Hinton Martell there is a Thomas Lambert, father Gregory, christened on 12.6.1580 (about the right date for an Early Settler). Also for Hinton Martell, there is a Thomas Lambart, baptised on 7.8.1602, father Nick, with Nick Lambart being listed as a church warden in 1607.

2.10 Newfoundland Fishing Industry
The fishing industry carried out from Dorset and Devon ports, in particular Poole, was a significant factor in facilitating emigration to New England and probably providing on-going support to the established settlements.

The Rev. John White's key role in the Mary & John voyage is stated in {CEB_WnthpFleet} on page 100:-
"The Reverend John White, Vicar of Dorchester, England, who has been generally and rightfully acclaimed as the sponsor of the earliest Massachusetts settlement (Plymouth excepted), was the inspiration of a movement which culminated in the gathering of nearly one hundred and fifty persons in the counties of Dorset, Somerset and Devon and their agreement to emigrate in a body to Massachusetts."

In the book {JDwyerDrstPnrs} there is a lot of interesting information regarding Poole's fishing trade, for example:-
  a) Page 25, referring to Rev. John White: "Besides his spiritual motive, White had a practical purpose; he wanted to help the fishermen of Weymouth and the other Dorset ports of Poole and Lyme Regis, who each year were braving 3000 treacherous miles of ocean to harvest the teeming cod off the coasts of New England and Newfoundland, He believed his settlers and the crops he raised could provide the sailors with a sheltering land base and fresh food."
  b) Page 27: "Traditionally, the seamen landed their catches on the American shore to be dried and salted by spare crews they left behind. Up to thirty boats from the Dorset ports were engaged in the trade"
  c) Page 29: "Those who sailed in the Mary and John had been led by a Massachusetts Bay stockholder, Roger Ludlow, who bought the vessel before it sailed."
  d) Page 69: "Newfoundland cod were being landed in Poole, the largest of the Dorset ports, as early as 1528, and it is a measure of how the trade flourished that Poole's fishing fleet swelled from twenty-one to 230 ships and 1500 men over the next sixty years."

It would seem that Thomas Moore made a good living in the fishing trade, sufficient for him to have his son John educated (John signed John Russell's will, Thomas Moore and Thomas Dewey could only 'make his mark'). It would have been logical for Thomas Moore to recruit his grandson Thomas Dewey into the trade, possibly entrusting him to lead the crew on American soil preparing the fish for shipping. Their family friend John Russell was possibly also on-shore at this time running his business as a merchant. It would be likely that Thomas Moore considered Thomas Dewey more like a son rather than a Grandson because he was much the same age as John so he may well have 'sponsored' Thomas. It is difficult otherwise to see how Thomas Dewey could have raised the funds to purchase a significant amount of land in America as his parents were only tenant farmers, living in a rented cottage.

From the evidence presented above, it is interesting to note that Thomas Moore seemed to settle later in New England. He was in New England in 1633, as he signed John Russell's will, but (unlike Thomas Dewey and John Moore) he is not listed as having a land grant in Dorchester, nor recorded as an early settler of Windsor in 1636. However, he is shown as having a plot on the 1640-54 map of Windsor. An explanation might be that he went back to Dorset, England possibly to retire. But when his daughter Mary died in 1637, he decided to return to Windsor to reside next door to his son John, dying in 1645.

2.11 Statistical confidence level
2.11.1 Overview
Thomas Dewey The Settler highly likely came from Dorset, Somerset or Devon and highly likely born between 1600 and 1610. He was a witness to John Russell's will, together with Thomas and John Moore. A candidate for the English root of the Settler must have attributes which matches this profile of the Settler. One such candidate is the Thomas Dewey born in Hinton Martell in 1606. An analysis based on published statistics has been carried out to determine the likelihood that there might be another hypothetical Thomas Dewey that could be The Settler. A summary of the detailed analysis in 2.11.2 is as follows:-
  a) In 1630 the estimate of the number of males named Dewey (or close variant) in Dorset, Somerset and Devon is 8
  b) estimate for the probability that one of these Deweys is named Thomas, born between 1600 and 1610 is 8 * 0.1 * 0.2, to give an overall probability of about 0.16
  c) estimate that this individual is also a Protestant is 0.16 * 0.2, about 0.032
  d) estimate that this individual is closely associated with the Moore family is 0.032 * 0.1, about 0.003
  e) estimated probability that this Moore family contain an adult male named Thomas or a John is about 0.1, to give about 0.0003
  f) estimated probability for a close association with the Russell surname is 0.06, gives an overall probability of about 0.00002

The likelihood that there is another Thomas Dewey with the right attributes is about 1 in 50,000. The following section provides the details for the analysis.

2.11.2 Detail of Analysis
Data has been collated from a number of sources:-
  a) frequency of surnames in England from {NameFreq}
  b) from the earliest every name census (1841, as held on the Ancestry website) which when searched for specific surnames gave:-
   Dewey in Devon and adjacent counties showed 22 in Dorset, 5 in Somerset and 4 in Devon
   Dewye in Devon and adjacent counties showed 0
   Dewey in Kent showed 2, males aged 30 and 20 in N Kent, about 50 miles from Sandwich.
   Russell in Dorset gave 310 out of a population of 172000, probability of 0.002
   Moore in Dorset gave 500 out of a population of 172000, probability of 0.003
  c) population of the counties of England in 1630 from {PopEngland}. This gave the data that the population of Dorset in 1630 was 90,000, and by 1841 had approximately doubled to 172,000.
  d)Based on the Dorset Protestation Returns, {ProtRet} there were approximately 17,000 Protestants in Dorset in 1630, out of a population of 90,000.

Combining this data gives estimates as used in section 2.11.1:-
  a) The number of males with the surname of Dewey/Dewye in Dorset, Somerset and Devon in 1630 as 8. This assumes that the distribution of surnames between 1630 and 1841 remains the same to a factor of 2 or so.
  b) The name Thomas is fairly common in Dorset in 1630s, about 11% of males; in 1630 about 1 in 5 of the population are aged 20 to 30.
  c) The ratio of Protestants in Dorset is about 17000/90000, approximately 0.2
  d) As an estimate, the size of a community of "closely associated families" is assumed to be about 40 families, 5 persons per family, who are related by marriage or have lived/worked together for several years. There would be about 50 Moore families in 1630 Dorset (250 persons in 1630, divided by 5 persons per family) out of 20000. Probability of a Moore family is 50/20000, so for a group of 40 the probability that at least 1 of the community is Moore is 40*50/20000 = 0.1.
  e) The probability for Thomas as a name is about 0.1, and about the same for John. However, it is possible that The Settler may have only known one of the Moore's prior to arriving in New England, so only one factor of 0.1 is used.
  f) There are about 30 Russell families in Dorset in 1630, so on the same basis as d), probability is 40*30/20000 =0.06.

2.11.3 Conclusion
Obviously some of the analysis applied to derive these estimates may be too simplistic which would give a margin of error on the '1 in 50000' figure. On the other hand, other supporting items of evidence, such as the numerous 'Neighbour Associations' presented in section 2.7 above, have not been taken into account as they are too difficult to quantify on a statistical basis. The conclusion is that the likelihood of the existence of another Thomas Dewey who has the right attributes is somewhere between 1 in 10,000 and 1 in 100,000, i.e. very unlikely.

3. Summary
The evidence presented above in sections 2.1 to 2.10 above refer to a number of factual events and supporting background history. To put these events in Dorset into the context of their close proximity:-
Hinton Martell - Events: Robert Russell Chr. 1567, father Rychard; Thomas Dewey snr married Mary Moore 1601; Edith Moore Bur. 1601; Thomas Dewey jnr Bap. 1607; Thomas Dewey snr & Robert Russell wardens 1625.
Lytchett Minster - about 8 miles from Hinton Martell. Events: John 1570 and Henry Russell 1573 Bap. father Richard
Sturminster Marshall - about 7 miles from Hinton Martell, 18 miles from Dorchester and 7 miles from Poole where Thomas Moore owned a caravel ship in 1591. Events: John Moore Bap. 1607, father Thomas. It seems that John Moore was baptised just 7 miles from where his sister Mary Dewey lived, 1 year after Thomas Dewey was born.
Stratton - about 3 miles from Dorchester. Events: Mary Moore Bap. 1586, father Thomas; Mary Moore Bur. 1637. Winterbourne Stappleton - also about 3 miles from Dorchester. Events: Edith Moore Bap. 1567, father Thomas.

It is highly likely that one or more of the items of evidence presented in sections 2.1 to 2.10 above are just a coincidence, but the overall weight of evidence leads me to believe with a high level of confidence that:-
Thomas Dewey The Settler was born in 1606 at Hinton Martell, Dorset, his father was Thomas (died 1636), his mother was Mary Moore (born 1586, died 1637), his maternal grandfather was Thomas Moore (died 1645) and his uncle was John Moore (born 1607, died 1677).

4. Recent (2020-23) Research
Until recently my research had only shown that it is highly likely TDTS was born in 1606 at Hinton Martel. To achieve my ultimate goal of proving, beyond reasonable doubt, that the descendants of TDTS in the USA are related to my ancestors in Wiltshire was a more challenging piece of research, as detailed here:- The DNA research over the last 2 years has produced far more significant results which prove, beyond reasonable doubt, that the Wiltshire Dewey family is related to the USA 'family' descended from TDTS and John Moore. My uncle, my son and I now have over 70 DNA matches in total to these descendants. Even if a extreme assumption is made that there is some sort of systematic failure (I have no idea what) such that only 12 of the tests are valid, and 1 in 10 of DNA test match results are incorrect, the probability that all 12 are incorrect is 1 in a trillion! There are 2 particularly ‘strong’ DNA matches, Andrew Wilhelmi on the Dewey line and Basil Morris on the Moore line; Andrew and Basil are (from their family trees) unrelated, but both are independent DNA matches to me, my uncle and my son, covering 3 generations, or 4 if my granddad is included as he is the common ancestor to me and my uncle.

The number of matches and their robustness, on both Dewey and Moore lines, leads me to conclude that the Most Recent Common Ancestors must be Thomas Dewye Snr and Mary Moore.

I write this with some apprehension, but over the past year I have rechecked and reconsidered all of the DNA evidence (as presented in the following sections) and I still come back to the same conclusion:- My paternal uncle, my son and I have a total of over 70 DNA matches to several of TDTS's descendants in the USA, about half on the Dewey side and half on the Moore side; all of the matches cannot be 'invalid'. This surely proves we 3 are related to TDTS, even if the links go back 8, or more generations? The robustness of the DNA evidence may have been facilitated by the unbroken line of ‘Dewey’ from Thomas Dewye Snr to my son Brian.

4.1 Dewey DNA Matches
Since taking the Ancestry DNA test, I have accumulated a DNA matches dataset of just over 30,000 results ranging from 2nd cousins to '5th to 8th cousins'. One of these matches is to a DD, with a DNA connection length of 19 cM. From {DNA_Matching} "cM is a genetic distance, measured in centimorgans (cM)... Genetic distance is proportional to the expected rate of recombinations along that stretch of chromosome". Basically, the lower the cM, the more distant is the relationship; a DNA match of 8cM implies a likely relationship of 8th (or more distant) cousin. The ' Thomas/Schuyler Family Tree' has a link from a Davis Rich Dewey II (1917 -1972) born in Pennsylvania, USA (the father of my DNA match) right back to Jedediah Dewey (1647-1727) a son of Thomas Dewey The Settler (TDTS) along an unbroken line of Deweys; looking at DD's tree, all of the individuals along DD's path were born in America. From my tree, none of my ancestors along the Dewey path emigrated to America; the small DNA length of 19 could suggest a relationship of 8th, or more, cousin. This strongly suggests that my DNA match to DD is via TDTS, through two unbroken lines of Dewey. A DNA match between me and DD is made possible by the DNA enhancing effect of endogamy, see section 4.3.2 below. Another probable effect of endogamy is that DD and I have 10 'Shared Matches' all predicted as 4th - 6th Cousin, with range 22-33cM, which seems unlikely. However the 'enhancing' effect could make this originate from about 10-15cm, i.e. in reality 8th or more cousins, which is more likely. One of the shared matches is 'M.M.', their tree has no Dewey on it, but it does go back to John Moore b1614! So I match DD (a Dewey) and DD and I share a Moore match! This suggests that both DD and I have Dewey, and Moore genes. On the basis that ‘DNA does not lie’ and that there is not a coincidental error in the trees causing a ‘confusion’ between Dewey and Moore lines, then this is an amazing result with regard to DD’s and my ‘Most Recent Common Ancestor’.

I have not found any record that TDTS had children before he emigrated to America, so the 'shared couple' between DD and me would almost certainly have to be TDTS’s parents, Thomas Dewey Senior and Mary Moore. The most likely candidate for the link down from Thomas & Mary to the Wiltshire Dewey's would be TDTS's brother John, born 1609, who obviously had Dewey and Moore genes; he remained in England and had a son Thomas born 1646 at Hinton Martell.

There is a lot more DNA evidence relating to endogamy and distant cousins. This specific topic should be of interest to other researchers, so I have created a stand-alone document as a ‘Case Study’, detailing evidence that proves the extent of endogamy at Windsor CT and Westfield MA and, as a consequence, the 71 DNA matches to ‘distant cousins’ that have been found. These matches are between 3 individuals in England, me (Terry), my paternal uncle (Norman) and my son (Brian), and several of the descendants of Dewey and Moore settlers in America. This Case Study can be accessed here {Case Study }

An overview of this endogamy based evidence is:- Targeted searches were made for 'Dewey' at Westfield MA (most of TDTS’s children relocated to Westfield with their mother and step-father George Phelps). This was carried out on the large DNA matches datasets for Terry, Norman and Brian, giving a total of 37 DNA matches, some of them with trees, which between them cover 5 of TDTS's children! The DNA matches of most interest for each child are:-
  a) 'fifeandcat' (and 'J.M.', managed): 8cM, 'McGrath-North Family Tree' goes to TDTS's son Jedediah b1647
  b) 'Murray_Milne': 14cM, 'Milne Family' tree goes to TDTS's son Israel b1645
  c) 'Deborah Spadaro': 11cM, 'Kenney/Stein Family Tree' goes to TDTS's son Thomas b1640
  d) 'rdecker2': 9cM, 'DECKER Family Tree' goes to TDTS's daughter Anna b1643
  e) 'Cid1956': 9cM, 'Davis/Black/Buckingham/Pinney Family Tree', also goes to Thomas b1640
  f) 'kevin_stevens_55': 8cM, 'Kevin Stevens Family Tree' goes to Josiah b1641

A match of particular significance is Andrew Wilhelmi, who is a match to all 3 of Terry, Norman & Brian. Andrew has a tree on Ancestry going back to a Roger Dewey b1785. On WikiTree he is Dewey-1925, and according to WikiTree, Roger goes back to Thomas Dewey b1640, a son of TDTS. This set of 3 DNA matches spanning 3 generations, all to the same individual, must on its own, surely confirm the genetic link between the ‘Wiltshire Dewey’ and the ‘American Dewey’ families?

4.2 Moore DNA Matches
A targeted search was also carried out on 'Moore' at Windsor CT USA' on the DNA matches datasets for Terry, his paternal uncle Norman, and his son Brian. The result is a total of 36 matches. The most interesting ones, those with linked trees that go back far enough to determine the connection, are:-
  a) Basil Morris, managed by babsruth, the tree 'Barbara Ruth Tree New' has 26 Moore entries going back to John Moore, but no Dewey on it
  b) Darryl Tucker managed by Stephanie Tucker, the tree 'Tucker, Chadwell, Bullock, Whitaker' has 9 Moore entries going back to John Moore, but no Dewey
  c) 'Lora Ruthbun' has a tree 'Lora (loomis/Simmonds) Rathbun's Tree' with 6 Moore and no Dewey, with a lot of sources provided for various events on the tree.

For the Moore matches, as with the Dewey matches, there is some duplication. Of the 36 Moore matches, 22 are a match to Terry and 10 are a match to Brian; 5 of each are to the same individual. One individual (Basil Morris) is a match to all 3 of Terry, Norman & Brian, which is a very good confirmation of the validity of the match; 3 independent DNA tests, spread over 3 generations surely proves the Wiltshire Dewey’s (in particular Terry, Norman and Brian) have Moore, as well as Dewey, genes? As 'DNA does not lie' this makes it highly likely that I am descended from TDTS' brother John Dewy b1609 at Hinton Martell {John Dewy 1609 baptism}, whose parents were Thomas Dewey Snr and Mary Moore. John Dewy had a son Thomas Dewye b1646 {Thomas Dewye 1646 baptism} How these link together is shown on the family trees accessed via the tabs ‘Terry’s FT’ and ‘Settler’s FT’.

4.3 How can DNA go back this far?
Before I discovered the above mentioned multiple DNA matches, I (and others) had considered DNA matching algorithms as probably not viable beyond 8th cousins. Obviously there are exceptions.

Although Ancestry does not use the 'Y' chromosome, it may be a factor that my DNA path in England is an unbroken line of Dewey and the line for DD in America is also unbroken. Also I believe that Windsor CT and TDTS's DNA line are different to the more typical distribution of genes. From {Shared_cM} page 22, which makes use of actual DNA match results, gives for 7th cousin a range of 0-57cM with an average of 14cM and for 8th Cousin 0-41 and average of 11; extrapolating to 10th cousin then gives about a range of 0-28cM and an average of about 7cM. So for my 10 DNA matches the range of 8-19 is compatible, but the average is about half of what might be expected. There are two possible reasons for this:-

  4.3.1 Less Dilution: The original group of settlers of Windsor started a new, relatively isolated, restricted gene pool. For example, TDTS was the man at the top of a growing pyramid of Dewey descendants. Other people that 'married into' the pyramid would, at least for earlier generations, have come from other Windsor families, which had their own restricted pyramid, but with a different settler at the top. So for my 10 DNA matches, their DNA was less 'diluted' than usual because all of their ancestors, going back about 10 generations, would be to only the 96 different surnames of settlers shown on the 1640 map of Windsor CT. In my case, I am at the bottom of an inverted pyramid of a gene pool, going back thousands of years! Or, to put it another way, if we ignore movement of families in and out of Windsor, one of my DNA matches who is 10 generations down from an original settler only has potentially 96 8*great-grandparents, i.e. all of the original surnames. Whereas I, for example, have potentially 1024 8*great-grandparents! This is equivalent to a difference of around 3 to 4 generations.

  4.3.2 Endogamy: This is the custom of marrying only within the limits of a local community, clan, or tribe. This may potentially be the most important factor affecting DNA matching due to the restricted gene pool of early Windsor. The International Society of Genetic Genealogy Wiki (ISOGG_Endogamy) states that "Endogamy is also a problem in early Colonial American populations. The interpretation of DNA results from endogamous populations can be particularly challenging because such people will typically have large numbers of matches in the DNA databases... The relationships will often be more distant than predicted." From my family history viewpoint this is more of a bonus than a problem as it means that my 10th generation distant relations are detectable by the DNA matching algorithm because the relationship 'seems' closer; and yes, I have a large number of DNA matches.

The ISOGG endogamy web page has a lot of links to external resources and to many published papers, in particular {your dna guide}. My understanding, from the selective items that I had read, is as follows:- for Windsor CT, and TDTS in particular, if say 5th cousins who are both descended from TDTS (perhaps one or both not having the surname Dewey) married and had a child, then that child would inherit Dewey DNA from both parents. The probability is that the child could have a 'enhanced' amount of Dewey DNA, which could make them 'seem' to be a 4th to 5th cousin, rather than in reality a 6th. If one parent was descended from TDTS and the other from John Moore, then the child could in theory inherit 1 part Dewey DNA to 3 parts Moore DNA. So from the period of say 1640 to 1840, before movement of people to and from Windsor and Westfield would become more prevalent, there are about 6 generations when multiple endogamy effects could occur. To predict what the effect would be on the DNA matches of people alive today is very difficult! From my perspective, if there is any detected DNA match then the match and I are definitely related, most probably via TDTS. For details see {Case Study }.

4.4 Wiltshire connection to TDTS of Dorset
As the renowned genealogist Hank Jones once said to me, "DNA does not lie"; from the DNA evidence, as presented above, there must be a connection between me and TDTS, the individuals that form this connection 'chain' must exist. The most likely top of the English part of the chain is TDTS's brother John Dewy, as detailed in section 4.2 above and shown under the 'Terry's FT'menu tab.

There are connections between Gillingham Dorset and East Knoyle Wiltshire, which is only about 4 miles from Gillingham. For example the baptism of Thomas Dewye on 10 Feb 1577 at Gillingham, Dorset {Thomas Dewye 1577 baptism}, the father being a Rici Dewye, baptised 1547 at East Knoyle, Wiltshire, {Richard Dewe 1547 baptism}. I believe this Thomas is Thomas Dewey senior. The burial in 1610 of Wm (presumably William) Dewye in Hinton Martell and in the same year, the burial of Wid. (presumably Widow) Dewye; the records show that both Thomas & William Dewye served as church wardens in Hinton Martell. This suggests that William was Thomas Snr's brother

I have family links to East Knoyle and nearby villages in Wiltshire. In particular Solomon Dewey, my 5*great grand-uncle, was baptised in 1727 at Tilshead, which is about 6 miles from Stonehenge. He married Elizabeth, and had 2 children before moving to East Knoyle around 1757, where he had another 2 children by Elizabeth, then remarried to Anne Brown, had another child and subsequently died (1802) in East Knoyle. He had at least 1 great-grandson, John born 1830 at East Knoyle. I do not know why Solomon, together with his young family, decided to relocate to East Knoyle, but considering the extensive Dewey community that existed in and around this part of Wiltshire and Dorset over a period of centuries, it is likely that he had relatives there.

There are many Dewey 'events' associated with this area; just for East Knoyle, a search on Ancestry for any 'events' related to a specific name spelling variant of 'Dewey', using the filters:- 'Any Event', 'Exact East Knoyle' and 'Exact' variant name gave the results for each chosen variant:-
  Dewe, 57 Baptisms, 10 Marriages, 1 Burial; earliest date 1543;
  Dewye, 0 (but 39 for the whole of Wiltshire, dated 1606 to 1672 and 88 for whole of Dorset, dated 1577 to 1679)
  Dewey, 83 Baptisms, 13 Marriages, earliest date 1758;
  Dewy 38 Baptisms, 3 Marriages, earliest date 1762;
  Dewie, Duee, Deway and Deawy, for all of these variants, 0 Events.

This shows that a lot of events took place involving Dewey and variants, over a period of centuries in East Knoyle. It is interesting that the variants of Dewey with the highest number of events are 'Dewe' and 'Dewy', which are the closest sound match to 'Dewi', the Welsh equivalent of David. This adds support to the theory on the origins of the surname Dewey, as detailed on the 'Home' menu tab, section 4.

4.5 Summary The evidence presented in various sections of my website shows that:-
  a) The Dewi community probably left Wales some time after about 550AD (possibly 1100AD) and settled in Wiltshire.
  b) Over time the community spread out from Wiltshire into neighbouring counties, significantly, into Dorset.
  c) Thomas Dewye the Settler was baptised 1606 at Hinton Martell, Dorset {Thomas Dewye 1606 baptism}. His father Thomas Dewye was baptised 1577 at Gillingham Dorset {Thomas Dewye 1577/8 baptism} and his father Rici (Richard) was baptised 1547 at East Knoyle, Wiltshire about 4 miles from Gillingham {Richard Dewe 1547 baptism}.
  d) My 5*Great Grand-uncle Solomon was baptised and had children in Tilshead, but moved to East Knoyle which is about 20 miles W of Tilshead.
  e) Currently available records on Ancestry from 1543 onwards show numerous Dewey, Dewe and Dewy 'events' at East Knoyle:- 178 baptisms, 26 marriages and 1 burial.
  f) The 35 DNA matches from me, my uncle Norman and my son Brian to the descendants of TDTS prove that we and TDTS are related; it is highly likely that TDTS’s brother John (baptised 1609 at Hinton Martel, ‘Scans’ tab 1g) is my 9*G grandfather.

I have confidence in my DNA test results in general because as well as matches to immediate family, I currently have 46 matches, going from 2nd to 6th cousins, all of which I have verified, going back to the 'shared couple' of George Dewey and Elizabeth Cockerill, born around 1734, in Wiltshire. The same confidence extends to my uncle Norman's and my son Brian's results.

This substantial evidence almost certainly shows that Hinton Martell Deweys (including TDTS) and my Wiltshire ancestors are related. Furthermore, the wide ranging DNA evidence, going back to 5 of TDTS's children, by different paths, from myself, my uncle and my son now lead me to conclude that TDTS and we 3 are, beyond reasonable doubt, related - Wow!

I would welcome any evidence/comments from other researchers, either supporting or querying the validity of my ideas and conclusions.  Please contact me via ''.

References & Links:
Ancsy: Dorset Parish Records 1538 to 1812, Transcript of Earliest Register 1566-1661, now held on Ancestry website

CEB_Dctny: Introduction of Topographical Dictionary of 2885 English Emigrants to New England 1620-1650 By CHARLES EDWARD BANKS Pub. 1937.

CEB_WnthpFleet: The Winthrop Fleet of 1630 by Charles Edward Banks published Boston 1930

DecksV22N2: Decks Awash, vol. 22, no. 02 (March-April 1993),

DPR1538: Dorset Record Office; BMD 1538-1812, Ref: PE/H1M.RE1/1; Image Prefix code: 667703xxx; Hinton Martell

DPRDoHT: Dorset History Centre; Dorset Parish Registers; Reference: PE/DO(HT):RE1/1

DPR_LM: Lytchett Minster Parish Registers: Dorset History Centre; Dorset Parish Registers; Reference: PE/LMR: RE 1/1


FDrakeReport: -17-1579-being-an-exact-copy-of-parts-of-the-original-report-of-this-voyage-in-his-caravel-the-golden-hind-including-a- description-of-the-first-religious-service-in-english-ever-held-in-america-and-also-the-date-of-his-departure-for- england-july-25-1579/oclc/262831883?referer=di&ht=edition


JDwyerDrstPnrs: Dorset Pioneers by Jack Dwyer, The History Press, 2009


LGD: Life of George Dewey rear admiral, U.S.N.; and Dewey family history. A M Dewey, W T Dewey and O C Dewey, 1898


Kuhn1943: 'The Mary and John', by Maude Pinney Kuhns, 1943




RCA_GtMgrtn: R. C. Anderson, The Great Migration Begins, Immigrants to New England 1620-1633 (Boston, Massachusetts: New England Historic Genealogical Society, 1995)'"

StilesV1: History of Ancient Windsor, Henry R Stiles, 1859